R. Shelomo Yitzchaki (Rashi)

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See also: Rashi's Torah Commentary

Rashi
Name
Rashi, R. Shlomo Yitzchaki,
רש"י, ר' שלמה יצחקי
Dates1040 – 1105
LocationFrance
WorksCommentaries on Tanakh and Talmud, Sifrut Debei Rashi
Exegetical Characteristics
Influenced byR. Yaakov ben Yakar, R. Yitzchak HaLevi, R. Yitzchak ben Yehuda
Impacted onEveryone

Background

Life

  • Name – R. Shelomo b. Yitzchak (ר' שלמה בן יצחק), of which Rashi (רש"י) is an acronym.
  • Dates – c. 10401 – July 13, 1105.2
  • Location – Rashi lived for most of his life in Troyes, although he studied in both Mainz and Worms.
  • Occupation – 
  • Family – Rashi’s uncle, the brother of his mother, was ר' שמעון הזקן, a student of R. Gershom. Rashi had four daughters: Yocheved, Miriam, Rachel,3 and a daughter who died during Rashi's lifetime.4 Yocheved married R. Meir b. Shemuel, and had four sons (Rashbam, R. Tam, R. Yitzchak, and Shelomo) and one daughter5. Miriam married R. Yehuda b. Natan (Rivan), and had a son named R. Yom Tov.
  • Teachers – Rashi studied at Mainz under R. Yaakov b. Yakar, and following R. Yaakov's death in 1064, he learned under R. Yitzchak b. Yehuda. He then moved to Worms, and studied under R. Yitzchak HaLevi. All of his teachers were students of R. Gershom.
  • Contemporaries – 
  • Students – R. Yosef Kara, Rashi's son-in-law R. Yehuda b. Natan, Rashi’s grandsons Rashbam and R. Tam, his secretary R. Shemayah, R. Simcha MiVitri.
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Works

  • Biblical commentaries – Rashi wrote commentaries on all of Tanakh.
  • Rabbinics
    • Talmudic commentaries – Rashi wrote commentaries on most, if not all,6 of the tractates of the Talmud Bavli.
    • Halakhic codes – Rashi did not write any halakhic codes himself. However, his students did author a number of halakhic works based on his teachings, including Machzor Vitri, Siddur Rashi, Sefer HaPardes, Sefer HaOreh, and others.
    • Responsa – In modern times, some of Rashi's surviving responsa were collected into a single work.7
  • Piyyutim – Rashi wrote a number of piyyutim. Although we don't know of any commentaries on piyyutim that Rashi wrote himself, his exegesis was incorporated into R. Shemayah's commentaries on the piyyutim.
  • Misattributed works – Commentaries on the end of Iyyov (from Iyyov 40:25 onward), Ezra, Nechemyah, and Divrei HaYamim; Commentaries on Moed Katan, Ta'anit, Nedarim, Nazir, and Horayot.

Torah Commentary

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Occasional Usage

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Impact

Later exegetes

Supercommentaries

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