Sin of the Golden Calf

Introduction

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Moshe's Absence

The story of the Golden Calf opens with the backdrop for the nation's sin:
EN/HEע/E
(א) וַיַּרְא הָעָם כִּי בֹשֵׁשׁ מֹשֶׁה לָרֶדֶת מִן הָהָר וַיִּקָּהֵל הָעָם עַל אַהֲרֹן וַיֹּאמְרוּ אֵלָיו קוּם עֲשֵׂה לָנוּ אֱלֹהִים אֲשֶׁר יֵלְכוּ לְפָנֵינוּ כִּי זֶה מֹשֶׁה הָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר הֶעֱלָנוּ מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם לֹא יָדַעְנוּ מֶה הָיָה לוֹ.
(1) And when the people saw that Moses delayed to come down from the mount, the people gathered themselves together unto Aaron, and said unto him: 'Up, make us a god who shall go before us; for as for this Moses, the man that brought us up out of the land of Egypt, we know not what is become of him.'

Ostensibly, Moshe's tardiness in descending from the mountain motivates the nation to request that Aharon make for them an "אֱלֹהִים אֲשֶׁר יֵלְכוּ לְפָנֵינוּ" ("a God who will go before us").  What, though, is the connection between Moshe's absence and their request?  Is the Calf born out of an existential angst in which the people are searching to fill the theological void left by Moshe's disappearance?  Or, is it merely the product of a practical need for visible leadership to help them navigate and survive the travails of the wilderness?  Does the term "אֱלֹהִים" used here have a sacred ("god" / "gods") or a secular ("ruler" / "judge") connotation?  Are the words "יֵלְכוּ לְפָנֵינוּ" meant in a spiritual sense or a physical one?  Either way, how do the people think that a molten calf will provide the solution to their problems?

Sins of the Nation and Aharon

Tehillim 106 reviews many of the events in the Wilderness (and beyond) in which the Children of Israel waver in their faith in Hashem.  Its verses appear to cast the episode of the Calf as an attempt to replace Hashem:

EN/HEע/E
(יט) יַעֲשׂוּ עֵגֶל בְּחֹרֵב וַיִּשְׁתַּחֲווּ לְמַסֵּכָה. (כ) וַיָּמִירוּ אֶת כְּבוֹדָם בְּתַבְנִית שׁוֹר אֹכֵל עֵשֶׂב. 
(19) They made a calf in Horeb and worshipped a molten image. (20) Thus they exchanged their glory for the likeness of an ox that eateth grass.

The possibility that the Israelites would seek to shift their allegiances to an idol, so soon after Hashem's miracles and revelation in Egypt and at Sinai, is deeply troubling.  However, as per the context in the chapter of Tehillim, this is merely part of a long litany of instances in which the nation displays such a rebellious streak.  What is unique, though, in the case of the Golden Calf is that Aharon played a lead role in the events.1  Is it possible that Aharon was involved in an idolatrous rite, or is it blasphemous to even ponder such a possibility? Moreover, how could it be that Aharon was rewarded so soon after by being consecrated as the high priest2 and that his actions did not compromise this appointment?

Additional Questions

Polemics and Parshanut

The sin of the Golden Calf was one of the spiritual nadirs of the early history of the Children of Israel, and it was seized upon by Christianity in its attempt to both demonstrate the stiff-necked nature of the Jewish people and rationalize that fulfillment of the Torah's commandments was required only for those who had sinned with the Calf.  Given the centrality of the story for religious doctrine, it is not surprising to find that Jewish exegetes attempt to relate and respond.

While Jews living in Islamic lands were less affected by the national aspect, they encountered the Muslim doctrine of prophetic infallibility, and this may have impacted their readings of Aharon's actions.  In Approaches, we will survey how Biblical commentators living in different countries and eras interpreted the sin, and explore some of the impact of these polemical factors.

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