Why Did Yonah Disobey Hashem?

Introduction

Flight from Prophecy

The Book of Yonah opens with Hashem instructing Yonah to go to the city of Nineveh and warn its inhabitants of the consequences of their continued wicked behavior.  The text then proceeds to recount how Yonah, ostensibly defying Hashem's command,1 instead flees to Tarshish ("וַיָּקׇם יוֹנָה לִבְרֹחַ תַּרְשִׁישָׁה מִלִּפְנֵי י"י").  This disobedience of Yonah is perplexing on multiple levels:

Yonah appears to attempt to justify his behavior in Chapter 4:

EN/HEע/E
וַיִּתְפַּלֵּל אֶל י"י וַיֹּאמַר אָנָּה י"י הֲלוֹא זֶה דְבָרִי עַד הֱיוֹתִי עַל אַדְמָתִי עַל כֵּן קִדַּמְתִּי לִבְרֹחַ תַּרְשִׁישָׁה כִּי יָדַעְתִּי כִּי אַתָּה אֵל חַנּוּן וְרַחוּם אֶרֶךְ אַפַּיִם וְרַב חֶסֶד וְנִחָם עַל הָרָעָה.
And he prayed unto the Lord, and said: 'I pray Thee, O Lord, was not this my saying, when I was yet in mine own country? Therefore I fled beforehand unto Tarshish; for I knew that Thou art a gracious God, and compassionate, long-suffering, and abundant in mercy, and repentest Thee of the evil.

Taken at face value, these words seem to merely amplify the difficulties in understanding Yonah.  Did Yonah really flee because Hashem is merciful and forgiving and overturns punitive decrees?  How does this serve to explain Yonah's actions?

Unique Repentance

In all of Tanakh, Yonah is one of the only prophets who actually manages to convince his audience to change their ways.2  After but five words of warning ("עוֹד אַרְבָּעִים יוֹם וְנִינְוֵה נֶהְפָּכֶת"), the people of Nineveh embark on a comprehensive campaign of repentance, replete with fasting and sack cloth.  All join in, from young to old, even the animals.  At first glance, the scene seems impressive, but on closer look, the reader is jarred.  Why are the animals participating?  They cannot undergo any internal process of regret or change.  Their wearing external symbols of repentance thus seems almost farcical, leading the reader to question the entire character of the city's repentance.3

Additionally, despite the fact that in the surrounding narrative Hashem's proper name is used, when discussing Nineveh's actions the verses use only the name Elokim. While the sailors had earlier cried out to Hashem ("וַיִּקְרְאוּ אֶל י"י"), the people of Nineveh cry out to Elokim ("וְיִקְרְאוּ אֶל אֱלֹהִים").  Is this shift significant, and if so, what does it suggest about the people's cries and return to God?

Symbolism of the "קיקיון"

In Chapter 4, after Yonah completes his mission and we are told that Hashem has averted the decree, Yonah is distressed and prays to die.  Hashem replies with an enigmatic symbolic action, bringing a "קיקיון" to shield Yonah from the sun, and then drying it up, leading Yonah to once again request death. Hashem then explicates His message:

EN/HEע/E
(י) וַיֹּאמֶר י"י אַתָּה חַסְתָּ עַל הַקִּיקָיוֹן אֲשֶׁר לֹא עָמַלְתָּ בּוֹ וְלֹא גִדַּלְתּוֹ שֶׁבִּן לַיְלָה הָיָה וּבִן לַיְלָה אָבָד. (יא) וַאֲנִי לֹא אָחוּס עַל נִינְוֵה הָעִיר הַגְּדוֹלָה אֲשֶׁר יֶשׁ בָּהּ הַרְבֵּה מִשְׁתֵּים עֶשְׂרֵה רִבּוֹ אָדָם אֲשֶׁר לֹא יָדַע בֵּין יְמִינוֹ לִשְׂמֹאלוֹ וּבְהֵמָה רַבָּה.
(10) And the Lord said: 'Thou hast had pity on the gourd, for which thou hast not laboured, neither madest it grow, which came up in a night, and perished in a night; (11) and should not I have pity on Nineveh, that great city, wherein are more than sixscore thousand persons that cannot discern Between their right hand and their left hand, and also much cattle?'

Despite Hashem's explanation, though, the reader is left puzzled by several aspects of the scene:

Philosophical Considerations

The above questions relate to several larger issues that are central to a proper understanding of the book:

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