Shemot 18:11 records Yitro recognition of Hashem's greatness in the words "עַתָּה יָדַעְתִּי כִּי גָדוֹל ה' מִכָּל הָאֱלֹהִים". The reason given for this sudden realization is the enigmatic phrase כִּי בַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר זָדוּ עֲלֵיהֶם. However, almost every word of this phrase is ambiguous:1
- What is the matter (דָּבָר) which led to Yitro's acknowledgment of Hashem's greatness?
- What is the root and meaning of "זָדוּ"?
- To whom does "against them" (עֲלֵיהֶם) refer?