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|Part of Speech||Verb|
|Related Words||זֵד , זָדוֹן|
The context of nine occurrences of the verb זוד,1 is rebellious or otherwise sinful behavior. However, in one additional instance (Bereshit 25:29), וַיָּזֶד refers to the act of cooking/boiling. In light of this apparent contradiction, commentators debate the precise definition of the root זוד (and the nature of its relationship to the singular meaning of וַיָּזֶד):
The various forms of זֵד / זָדוֹן share the same issues as the verb. They can be explained as referring to either an intentionally wicked action or person, or an arrogant action or person.
1. Act with sinful intent
- See Targum Yerushalmi (Yonatan), Rashi, Ibn Ezra, Radak, Ramban.2
- Radak links this understanding to the word מזיד, used in Rabbinic Hebrew to refer to an intentional act.3 According to both R. Yonah ibn Janach and Radak, the verb וַיָּזֶד used in Bereshit 25:29 is unconnected to this meaning and comes from the completely different root of נזד.
2. Act arrogantly
- See Shadal,4 U. Cassuto, Brown Driver Briggs Lexicon (BDB).5
- The advantage of this approach is that it allows one to connect all of the occurrences of the root to a meaning of rising or expanding. I.e., when used in a physical context the term refers to cooking or boiling, but when used in a mental context it refers to acting arrogantly.
In the case of כִּי בַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר זָדוּ עֲלֵיהֶם, commentators disagree regarding the root of זָדוּ and its meaning. See Power and Justice.
Relationship to Synonyms
In Rabbinic sources, זָדוֹן is used to describe a premeditated sin (in contrast to a שְׁגָגָה). Rabbinic Hebrew also introduced the word מֵזִיד as a term for intentional sinning (in contrast to שׁוֹגֵג). This usage likely influenced many medieval commentators in their understanding of the root זוד.