A Heated Argument
One of the most memorable of spousal interchanges in Tanakh transpires between David and Michal in Shemuel II 6 after the bringing of the Ark to Yerushalayim. As Michal watches David dance in front of the Ark, she feels his royal dignity was abandoned, and her heart fills with scorn:
(טז) וְהָיָה אֲרוֹן י"י בָּא עִיר דָּוִד וּמִיכַל בַּת שָׁאוּל נִשְׁקְפָה בְּעַד הַחַלּוֹן וַתֵּרֶא אֶת הַמֶּלֶךְ דָּוִד מְפַזֵּז וּמְכַרְכֵּר לִפְנֵי י"י וַתִּבֶז לוֹ בְּלִבָּהּ... (כ) וַיָּשׇׁב דָּוִד לְבָרֵךְ אֶת בֵּיתוֹ וַתֵּצֵא מִיכַל בַּת שָׁאוּל לִקְרַאת דָּוִד וַתֹּאמֶר מַה נִּכְבַּד הַיּוֹם מֶלֶךְ יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר נִגְלָה הַיּוֹם לְעֵינֵי אַמְהוֹת עֲבָדָיו כְּהִגָּלוֹת נִגְלוֹת אַחַד הָרֵקִים. (כא) וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִד אֶל מִיכַל לִפְנֵי י"י אֲשֶׁר בָּחַר בִּי מֵאָבִיךְ וּמִכׇּל בֵּיתוֹ לְצַוֺּת אֹתִי נָגִיד עַל עַם י"י עַל יִשְׂרָאֵל וְשִׂחַקְתִּי לִפְנֵי י"י. (כב) וּנְקַלֹּתִי עוֹד מִזֹּאת וְהָיִיתִי שָׁפָל בְּעֵינָי וְעִם הָאֲמָהוֹת אֲשֶׁר אָמַרְתְּ עִמָּם אִכָּבֵדָה. (כג) וּלְמִיכַל בַּת שָׁאוּל לֹא הָיָה לָהּ יָלֶד עַד יוֹם מוֹתָהּ.
(16) And it was so, as the ark of the Lord came into the city of David, that Michal the daughter of Saul looked out at the window, and saw king David leaping and dancing before the Lord; and she despised him in her heart... (20) Then David returned to bless his household. And Michal the daughter of Saul came out to meet David, and said: 'How did the king of Israel get him honour to-day, who uncovered himself to-day in the eyes of the handmaids of his servants, as one of the vain fellows shamelessly uncovereth himself! ' (21) And David said unto Michal: 'Before the Lord, who chose me above thy father, and above all his house, to appoint me prince over the people of the Lord, over Israel, before the Lord will I make merry. (22) And I will be yet more vile than thus, and will be base in mine own sight; and with the handmaids whom thou hast spoken of, with them will I get me honour.' (23) And Michal the daughter of Saul had no child unto the day of her death.
What about David's dancing so upsets Michal? Why does David respond by commenting about his being chosen as king in place of her father? How is that relevant to the conversation? Finally, though David gets the final say and appears to be the winner in this war of words, is he in the right? How should the actions of both Michal and David be evaluated?
Michal and David's Prior Relationship
In several other instances in Sefer Shemuel, the narrative discusses David and Michal's relationship. How, if at all, do the couple's prior interactions shed light on their behavior in Chapter 6?
- Shemuel I 18 – After Shaul recognizes that Michal loves David, he offers her to David in marriage, and David provides two-hundred Philistine foreskins as a dowry.
- Shemuel I 19 – Michal saves David's life as she helps him escape from Shaul.
- Shemuel I 25 – While David is on the run from Shaul, he takes two new wives. Michal, in the meantime, has been given away to Palti b. Layish.
- Shemuel II 3 – During the civil war after Shaul's death, David makes a covenant with Avner which is contingent on Michal being returned to him.
- Shemuel II 21 – The last mention of Michal is at the end of Sefer Shemuel. To appease the Givonites and stop a famine, David hands over Michal's five sons to the Givonites to be killed.1
Do any of the above stories provide insight into the heated exchange of Chapter 6? Has the relationship between Michal and David until now been steadfast or troubled?
The brief interchange raises several smaller questions as well:
- "מִיכַל בַּת שָׁאוּל" – In three out of the four places in our unit where Michal is mentioned, she is referred to as "Michal, the daughter of Shaul". Is this significant? Why does the text go out of its way to remind the reader of Michal's connection to Shaul?
- "לִפְנֵי י"י" – David's retort to Michal begins and ends with the words, "לִפְנֵי י"י", an unnecessary doubling which makes the entire sentence sound awkward. How is the doubling to be understood?
- "הָאֲמָהוֹת" – Both Michal and David refer to David's mingling specifically with the maidservants, suggesting that this lies at the heart of their argument. Why did this trouble Michal so greatly?
- "וּלְמִיכַל... לֹא הָיָה לָהּ יָלֶד עַד יוֹם מוֹתָהּ" – Is the mention of Michal's barrenness meant to suggest that she was punished for her part in the argument, or is it an unrelated fact?